Date of Award

Spring 2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Athletic Training – Post Professional Concentration

Committee Chairperson

Sandra Fowkes-Godek PhD, LAT, ATC

Committee Member

Katherine Morrison PhD, LAT, ATC

Committee Member

Nicole Cattano PhD, LAT, ATC


Objectives: To determine if sweat rate and sweat electrolyte concentrations differ when football players exercise in warm versus cool environmental conditions. Participants: Eleven unacclimatized football players exercised for 60 min in warm (24°C and 75%RH) and cool (10°C and 25%RH) randomly assigned trials. Methods: Sweat patches made from sterile gauze were placed on forearm, low back and thigh sites after skin was thoroughly washed and dried. Sweat rate was calculated as change in pre-exercise to post-exercise nude body weight adjusted for fluid consumed and urine produced during exercise. Sweat patches were removed after exercise and centrifuged to separate sweat from gauze and analyzed for Na+, K+ and Cl- via ion selective electrode. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and dependent t-tests with significance set at pResults: Sweat rate was higher in warm (1.40.6 L/Hr) versus cool (0.90.6 L/Hr) conditions, but no differences existed in Na+, K+ or Cl- in any of the three sites. Because sweat rate was higher in warm, calculated full body NaCl losses (6843.9 ± 3784.5/Hr) were also higher versus cool (4398.8 ± 3939.5/Hr) conditions, t =2.77, P=0.019). Conclusion: As expected, sweat rate was higher in warm versus cool conditions, but there were no differences found in sweat electrolyte concentrations at any site measured. Thus, electrolyte replacement does not need to be changed for each player in different environments other than accounting for sweat losses. However, individual replacement plans should be specialized due to considerable individual variability in both sweat rate and sweat electrolyte concentrations.