Date of Award

Spring 2019

Document Type

Capstone Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Administration (DPA)


Public Policy and Administration

Committee Chairperson

Kristen B. Crossney, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jeremy N. Phillips, Ph.D., MPA


The relationship of racial demographics to arrests, traffic stops, and citations has been extensively examined. However, although revenue generation appeared to be the goal of city officials and the police department in Missouri, researchers had not examined the effect of revenue-driven policing on budget allocations for police services. In this study, the relationship between revenue-driven policing and annual budget allocations for police services was investigated. Annual number of citations issued, annual budget allocation for police services, and annual violent crime rates were examined from 40 municipalities in Missouri. Data were derived from federal, state, and municipal documents. The following significant relationships were found for each year between 2012 and 2017: (a) between annual municipal budget allocations for police services and the annual revenue derived from law enforcement, (b) between annual violent crime and citations, and (c) between annual violent crime rates and annual municipal budget allocations for police services. Additionally, there was a significant decline between two sets of years (2012-2014 and 2015-2017) in the number of citations. The findings may have been attributable to 2015 state legislation that limited the amount of revenue derived from law enforcement a municipality could retain. Although poor minority communities suffer the most harm from aggressive policing, revenue-driven policing affects all communities regardless of demographic composition. It is recommended that researchers continue to investigate the causes of exploitive and abusive policing and explore strategies to reduce the dependence of police agencies on revenue from fines and fees.