Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Education Policy, Planning, and Administration

Committee Chairperson

Heather Schugar, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Craig Stevens, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Rick Howard, M.Ed.


Sports officials play a significant role in organized sports, yet academic research surrounding their training, development, and performance is minimal. Across the nation, athletes are attempting to safely resume play after the COVID-19 pandemic, and many sports officials have decided that they will not return to their respective fields or courts. More robust training and development within intramural sports programs on college campuses could be the solution to recruiting and retaining sports officials.

This mixed methods study examined intramural sports officials’ training, development, and performance within a collegiate intramural sports department. This study utilized a two-phase explanatory sequential mixed methods design (quan à QUAL) based on a theoretical framework consisting of experiential learning and social learning theories. During Phase I of this research study, 34 intramural sports officials were surveyed regarding the rule knowledge prior to and after their traditional intramural basketball officials’ training. Phase II of this study consisted of observations, video review, and semi-structured post-game interviews among 6 intramural sports officials over a two-week period.

Quantitative results showed a statistically significant increase in scores between the pre- and posttest with the traditional intramural basketball officials’ training used as the intervention. Differences in scores were explored in consideration of officials’ gender, playing experience, and officiating experience. Qualitative results captured the officials’ experiences regarding decision-making, crew dynamics, rules knowledge, and game management after the video review. The data collected provided compelling results and will be used to create recommendations for improved intramural official development programs in the future.