The Protective Role of Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Ethnic-Racial Identity on Academic Outcomes among a Diverse Sample of Emerging Adult Immigrants in the United States
Date of Award
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Jasmin Tahmaseb McConatha, Ph.D.
Angela T. Clarke, Ph.D.
Lauren Brumley, Ph.D.
This study sought to address an existing gap in research literature by exploring the impact of family ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic-racial identity on family separation, the length-of-time living in the United States (US), perceptions of discrimination as well as stereotype threat, and academic outcomes among young adult immigrants to the US. A sample of 96 English-speaking immigrant-origin emerging adults (aged 18-25) from ethnically diverse backgrounds completed electronic self-report questionnaires. A Pearson’s correlational analysis found ethnic-racial identity to be significantly and positively related to ethnic-racial socialization, perceived stereotype threat, and academic outcomes. Additionally, a Linear regression analysis was conducted using length-of-time in the US, ethnic-racial socialization, and the interaction of both as predictor variables and academic outcomes (i.e., academic self-efficacy, academic self-ranking, and GPA) as dependent variables. This interaction had a significant effect only on academic self-efficacy. Also, a t-test found no significant difference in ethnic-racial identity between participants experiencing family separation and those who were not. Instead, a Person’s correlational analysis found that ethnic-racial socialization predicted ethnic-racial identity regardless of family separation. In sum, findings from the current study suggest that ethnic-racial socialization experiences have a substantial impact on ethnic-racial identity, and both have a significant influence on academic outcomes; ethnic-racial socialization plays an important role in the face of family separation; and ethnic-racial identity has a critical influence on perceived stereotype threat. Also, current findings highlight the significance race and gender may have in perceived discriminatory experiences and academic self-efficacy development (respectively). Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Parris, Veronica, "The Protective Role of Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Ethnic-Racial Identity on Academic Outcomes among a Diverse Sample of Emerging Adult Immigrants in the United States" (2022). West Chester University Doctoral Projects. 181.