Date of Award

Spring 2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Committee Chairperson

Sandra Kerr, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Geeta Shivde, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Farzin Irani, Ph.D., ABPP


The present study examined the impact of Learning2Breathe (L2B), a mindfulness-based stress reduction program developed for use with adolescents on rumination. The program was applied to rumination in college-age men and women. Our experiment utilized a quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 50 undergraduate students that were placed in either the experimental or control group. Data was collected pretest and posttest through a variety of measures including the Rumination Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ) which consisted of a rumination and reflection subscale, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). A two-way mixed ANOVA design was used to analyze data. There was no statistically significant interaction on the Reflection subscale of the RRQ or on the Rumination subscale of the RRQ. We also failed to find a statistically significant interaction on the MAAS. Possible limitations to this study include lack of robust data due to restrictions imposed by COVID-19, lack of randomized selection, and two outliers included in the analyses: one in the MAAS experimental group, and one in the MAAS control group.